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[翻译课程] 第9课 翻译技巧--转换(2)

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发表于 2012-9-4 16:33:38 |显示全部楼层
第9课 翻译技巧--转换(2)


五、 正面表达与反面表达转换
由于思维方式的不同,英语中有些从正面表达的东西在汉语中习惯从反面来表达;而有些从反面来表达的东西在汉语中则习惯从正面来表达。因此,英译汉时常常有必要进行转换。这就是通常所说的"正说反译、反说正译"法。英语正面表达这里指的是不带否定词no, not , never否定前缀non-, in-, im-, ir-, dis-和否定后缀-less等的句子,汉语正面表达则是指不带"不"、"没"、"非"、"未"、 "否"、 "无"、 "莫"、"勿"、"别"等否定词语的句子;反之则是反面表达。
(一)英语正面表达转换为汉语反面表达
frost-free refrigerator无霜冰箱
Freeze! 别动!
Wet paint! 油漆未干!
mortally ill 不治之症
(1) The proposal was carried by a very narrow margin. 这项建议差点通不过。
(2)We believe that the younger generation will prove worthy of our trust. 我们相信,年轻一代将不会辜负我们的信任。
(3) He went to an outdoor phone booth and dialed Chicago, then New York, then San Francisco. Silence. Silence. Silence. 他到一个户外公用电话亭,先给芝加哥、又给纽约、旧金山打了电话。
没有回音。没有回音。没有回音。
(4) As a place to live, it left much to be desired. As a secret training base for a revolutionary new plane, it was an excellent site, its remoteness effectively masking its activity. 作为居住的地方,这里有许多不足之处,但作为改革性的新飞机秘密训练基地,却是非常理想的。因为它地处边陲,人们不易发觉其中的活动。
(5) The pictures that linger in his mind, called up in a moment by such sensations as the smell of roses or of new-mown hay, are of a simpler nature. 然而,萦绕心头的画面,那些一经嗅到玫瑰花香或新鲜干草的气息便会倏地闯入记忆的情景,其实并不复杂。
(6) As he sipped his coffee, he opened a still damp morning paper; and began reading. 他一面喝咖啡,一面翻开油墨未干的晨报,看了起来。
(7) Father's attitude toward anybody who wasn't his kind used to puzzle me. 以前我总不懂父亲为什么对那些脾气跟他不一样的人采取那么个态度。
(8) Sadly, Edward died before he could see the new church, but his beautiful tomb is still there, with the tombs of the Kings and Queens of England who came after him. 遗憾的是,爱德华未能看见新教堂就去世了,但是他那幽雅的坟墓和嗣后的英国国王和王后的坟墓还都留在那里。
(二)英语反面表达转换为汉语正面表达
(1) You can't be too careful. 你要特别小心。
(2) The significance of these incidents wasn't lost on us. 这些事件引起了我们的重视。
(3) Such flights couldn't long escape notice. 这类飞行迟早会被人发觉的。
(4) The human system can hold out for a while against the gas from a leaking, damped-down coal stove, but soon after unconsciousness comes death. 煤气若是从封上火的煤炉漏出,人体可以忍受一些时候,但人昏迷之后,不用很久就会死亡。
(5) But there is another story, a family saga, that may turn out to be important to unlocking the mystery of what actually happened between Lewinsky and the President. 但是,莱温斯基和总统之间究竟发生了什么事,另外一个故事,即家史,最终对解开这个谜十分重要。
(6) Maintaining credibility requires confronting potential adversaries with the objective, unambiguous facts of our counter-balancing military capabilities, our political strengths and economic advantages, and our clear resolution to use these for our defense if necessary. 保持这种可靠性需要以下客观的、明确的事实来对付潜在的对手:我们达到平衡的军事能力、我们的政治实力和经济优势以及我们必要时使用这些手段进行自卫的毫不含糊的决心。
六、 主动式与被动式转换
英语中被动语态用得较多,而汉语中被动语态则用得相对较少,因此英译汉时被动语态常常可转换为主动语态,当然有时也可以保留其被动语态。而英语中的主动语态,有时汉译也可根据汉语的表达习惯转换为被动语态。
(一) 被动转换为主动
英语被动句式转换为汉语主动句式时,原文中的主语在译文中有时仍可作主语,有时也可作宾语,有时全句还可译成带表语的主动句。例如:
(1) Heat is constantly produced by the body as a result of muscular and cellular activity. 由于肌肉和细胞活动的结果,身体不断地产生热。
(2) In a moment he will turn and see us, and his face will be lighted by a smile so radiant you'll feel warm all the way through..过一会儿他会转过身来看着我们,那时他脸上会泛出灿烂的微笑,让你全身都感到温暖。
(3) With the development of speech, the number of occasions producing sudden experiences of pleasure increased, and since laughter was closely associated with speech, man had this means of expressing his pleasure. 随着说话的发展 ,产生突然感受愉快的机会增多了,并且,由于笑与说话密切相关,人类就有了这种表达愉快的手段。
(4) In future conflicts, similar logistical problems are likely to be repeated-----raising the prospect of mass confusion in a full-scale mobilization. 在未来的冲突中,类似的后勤问题大概还会重复出现,从而在一次大规模的动员中有可能出现大乱。
当然有时英语被动语态翻译成汉语时仍可用被动句式,例如:
(1) When we were first captured, my own reaction was mainly one of fear and suspicion. 我们刚被俘时,我的感觉是又害怕又怀疑。
(2) The visitor was flattered and impressed.客人受宠若惊,深为感动。
(二) 主动转换为被动
有时, 英语中主动句在汉译时可用汉语中的被动句来表达,但这一现象似不多见。例如:
(1) His acceptance into the Party is a quite natural thing. 他被吸收到党内是完全应该的。
(2) Appalled by what he had done, Bob rushed to the parapet and flung himself on the rocks below, where the sea claimed him immediately.鲍勃对他所做的一切感到震惊,他冲到护墙处,纵身跳到下面的岩石上,立即被大海所吞没。
七、分句转换
分句转换是指一种英语分句翻译成汉语时转换成另一种分句,例如:
(1) They felt that it was much easier and safer to rob their own people, for they knew that white policemen never really searched diligently for Negroes who committed crimes against other Negroes.他们觉得抢劫他们的同种人要安全得多,因为他们知道,如果黑人侵犯的是黑人,白人警察便从来不认真搜捕。(定语从句--条件状语从句)
(2) Her great grief in this relation was that her only child, on whose education no expense had been and would be spared, was now old enough to perceive these deficiencies in his mother. 这一方面给她造成了极大的苦闷,也就是有关她的独生子的问题。虽然过去和今后在儿子的教育费用上既不曾也不会省掉什么钱,然而如今他的年纪已经不小,能注意他母亲的这些缺点了。(定语从句--让步状语从句)
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