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[文化传播] 17世纪晚期至19世纪早期的中国画家浅说(中译英)

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发表于 2018-3-14 14:18:56 |显示全部楼层
17世纪晚期至19世纪早期的中国画家浅说
Elementary Introduction to the Chinese Artists
From the Late 17th Century to the Early 19th Century
中国绘画是一门独特的艺术形式,其历史悠久,源远流长,在漫长的发展过程中, 成了一套自身独有的审美体系、创作理念和表现形式。虽然在各个时期中国绘画的发展状况不尽相同,但整体来说,与西方绘画相比,中国绘画更多地强调抒发作者的主观情感,尤其是宋元(960-1368)以来,随着文人画逐渐成为画坛主流,中国绘画“诗书画印结合”的表现形式更是深入人心,影响至今而不衰。
Chinese painting is a unique art form with a long history. Over the long course of its development it has formed a unique aesthetic system, creative approach and form of expression. Chinese painting differs in its periods, but compared with Western painting it emphasizes more the expression of the  subjective feelings of the artists. Ever since the Song and Yuan Dynasties (960-1368), this style of painting has gradually become the mainstream, and the expressive form of Chinese painting “combining poetry, calligraphy, painting and stamp” has been deeply rooted in the Chinese society with a lasting impact.
此次在《中国制造——克莱姆莱茵河上的广州》中展出的15/套中国绘画,分别由12位画家创作,他们主要活动于17世纪晚期至19世纪早期。这一时期,为中国清朝(1644-1911)统治的鼎盛时期,社会安定,经济繁荣,再加上统治者对绘画艺术的重视,绘画领域也呈现出繁荣景象,画坛人才辈出,流派众多,可谓异彩纷呈,盛况空前。一方面,受帝王对书画的喜好影响,宫廷画家、词臣画家、宗室画家活跃一时;另一方面,在商业比较发达的扬州、金陵、苏州、上海、广州等地区,则出现大量的职业画家。
The 15 pieces/sets of Chinese paintings, which were shown in the exhibition themed by Made in China – a View of Guangzhou on Klein Rhine, were created by 12 painters from the late 17th century to the early 19th century. That period was China’s Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), the heyday of stable society and prosperous economy, when the rulers paid great attention to art. So the painting field prospered with many talents in painting and other art schools of unprecedented and extraordinary splendor. On the one hand, under the influence of emperors who favored painting and calligraphy, court painters, attendant painters and imperial painters were active. On the other hand, in such developed business areas as Yangzhou, Nanjing, Suzhou, Shanghai and Guangzhou, there were many professional painters.
很难统计,从17世纪晚期至19世纪早期,中国究竟有多少人参与绘画创作或以此谋生,仅仅是统计有画作流传至今或有文献记载的画家,就将是一个庞大的数字。这些艺术家,有的是天潢贵胄、朝廷重臣,有的是前朝遗民、宦海失意的退隐官员,有的来自艺术世家,有的是文人学者,有的是宫廷专业画家,有的是受市场青睐的职业画家,有的集多重身份于一身,他们虽然身份、背景、经历以及艺术主张和创作观念等各不相同,但他们创作的许多绘画精品,携带着他们所生活的那个时代的印记,历经沧桑流传至今,成为了中国乃至世界多家重要博物馆的珍藏。
It is difficult to count the Chinese people who took painting as a part-time/full-time job at that time. The number of the artists with circulated/documented paintings was already very huge. Some of these artists were the dignitaries and ministers of the court, some were the adherents of the former dynasty or frustrated officials who were retired, some came from art families, some were scholars, some were professional painters of the court, some were professional painters favored by the market and some had multiple identities. Although they differed in identity, background, experience, artistic approach and creative ideas, the excellent paintings they created were all marked by their era. These paintings have been handed down through the vicissitudes of life to become treasures of Chinese museums and of the world.
王翚(1632-1717),江苏常熟人,是清朝初年受到皇室扶持的“四王”画派的代表画家。“四王”为这一时期代表画家王时敏(15921680)、王鉴(15981677)、王翚、王原祁(16421715)的合称。他们的绘画以山水画为主,雄踞画坛正统地位百余年,吸引了大批追随者,对清代以来山水画坛产生了巨大影响。王翚60岁时主持绘制了《康熙南巡图卷》共十二大卷,此次展出了他《枫湫云顶图卷》《山水轴》两件作品,《枫湫云顶图卷》作于1703年,此时画家已70余岁,足见其晚年驾驭笔墨的高超能力。
Wang Hui (1632-1717), who came from Changshu (Jiangsu), was one of the “Four Wangs” painting school supported by the royal family in the early Qing Dynasty. “Four Wangs” included Wang Shimin (1592-1680), Wang Jian (1598-1677), Wang Hui and Wang Yuanqi (1642-1715). Their works were mainly landscape paintings, dominating the orthodox position for more than 100 years and attracting a large number of followers with the greatest impact on landscape painting since the Qing Dynasty. At the age of 60, Wang Hui presided over the drawing of Scroll of Kangxi Southern Tour, totally in twelve scrolls. This exhibition will show two of them, i.e. Fengqiu Cloud Top Scroll and Landscape Axis. Fengqiu Cloud Top Scroll was painted in 1703, when the painter was over 70 years old. This shows that he still had superb control of the ink even in his later years.
华喦(1682-1756)、金农(1687-1763)、黄慎(1687-1768)、郑燮(1693-1765)为“扬州画派”代表画家。他们或一生不曾出仕,或早年曾出任一些品级不高的地方官职,虽然来自不同的地方,但晚年都定居扬州卖画为生。他们以革新的面貌出现在画坛上,作品感情深刻炽烈,形式不拘一格,狂放怪异,对清代中期以来的花鸟画产生了深远影响。在“扬州画派”艺术家中,金农以画梅知名,这次展出了他的《墨梅图》;郑燮以画竹见称于世,这次展出了他的《墨竹图》。“梅”和“竹”是中国绘画中的常见题材,寄寓着中国画家对高尚品格的赞美与追求。
Hua Yan (1682-1756), Jin Nong (1687-1763), Huang Shen (1687-1768) and Zheng Xie (1693-1765) were the representative painters of the “Yangzhou Painting School”. Some of them did not serve in any official capacity in their whole lives, and some of them only served in some local official capacities of low grades in their early years. Coming from different places, they all settled down in Yangzhou in their later years to sell paintings for a living. They appeared in the painting world in an innovative way. Their works were full of deep blazing feelings, with eclectic forms, wild and weird, having a profound impact on bird-and-flower painting from the mid-Qing Dynasty. Among these “Yangzhou Painting School” artists, Jin Nong was known for painting plum blossom. And his Painting of Ink Plum Blossom will be exhibited this time. Zheng Xie’s bamboo paintings are known worldwide; his Ink Bamboo will be exhibited this time. In Chinese painting, “plum blossom” and “bamboo” are common themes that have received the praise and pursuit of many noble characters among Chinese painters.
董邦达(1696-1769)、钱载(1708-1793)二人都曾高中进士,并在朝廷担任过要职,为乾隆时期(1736-1795)重要的词臣画家。官员与画家的双重身份,以及深厚的学养,广博的见识,使得他们对绘画艺术有着一般画家所不及的深刻理解。值得一提的是,董邦达的儿子董诰(1740-1818)也是当时的朝廷重臣、词臣画家,他们父子先后受到乾隆、嘉庆(1796-1820年在位)两位皇帝的恩宠,许多画作上都有皇帝的题字题诗。
Dong Bangda (1696-1769) and Qian Zai (1708-1793) became Jinshi and served in the court in important posts to become literary attendant official painters during the Qianlong period (1736-1795). Their dual identities of official and painter, high education & moral standing and extensive knowledge gave them a deep understanding of the art of painting that general painters could not achieve. It is worth mentioning that Dong Bangda's son Dong Peng (1740-1818) was also an important court minister and literary attendant painter; both were favored by two emperors, Qianlong and Jiaqing (1796 - 1820). Many of their paintings were inscribed by the emperors with words and poems.
奚冈(1746-1803),浙江杭州人,他工诗书,精于篆刻,为当时著名的篆刻家。篆刻家的身份,使他的画作与他人相比,有着浓厚的金石味道。著名美术史学者万青力(1945-2017)在其《并非衰落的百年:19世纪中国绘画史》一书中,将奚冈与另一位金石画家黄易(1744-1802)称为“融入金石趣味的正统画家”。
Xi Gang (1746-1803), who came from Hangzhou (Zhejiang), focused on poetry books and was skilled in seal cutting as a famous engraver. The identity of engraver imparted his painting a strong sense of inscription in metal and stone compared with others. The famous art history scholar Wan Qingli (1945-2017) called Xi Gang and another epigraphy painter Huang Yi (1744-1802),  “orthodox painters integrating the fun of metal and stone” in his book Not a Hundred Years of Decline: Chinese Painting History of the 19th Century.
黎简(1747-1799)、谢兰生(1769-1831)是两位广东画家。两人均出生于世代书香世家,在当时的广东文化艺术圈具有较高的地位和影响力,他们的绘画作品代表了18-19世纪广东文人画的创作水平,在绘画上开创了广东美术的新局面。
Li Jian (1747-1799) and Xie Lansheng (1769-1831) were two painters from Guangdong. Both were born into generations of family scholars with high status and influence of their time in Guangdong culture and art circles. Their paintings represent the creative literati levels from the 18th century to the 19th century, leading to a new era of painting in Guangdong.
改琦(1774-1829),先祖为西域人,明清两代世居北京,后迁松江(今属上海)。工书法,善画人物、花竹,尤以仕女画最为著名,对后世影响很大。此次展出了他创作的《仕女册》《兰花图轴》,从中我们可以看到他驾驭不同绘画题材的艺术能力。
Gai Qi (1774-1829), whose ancestors came from the Western Regions, lived in Beijing where his ancestors moved during the Ming and Qing Dynasties; he later moved to Songjiang (which is now part of Shanghai). His expertise was in calligraphy, figure painting and flower & bamboo painting. And he was especially known for his beautiful painting with a great influence on the later generations. His Beauty Volume and Orchid Scroll will be exhibited, from which we can see his ability to control the artistic content of different themes.
马荃,生卒年不详,江苏常熟人,是12位画家中惟一的一位女画家,大约活动于18世纪中早期,其父为当时著名画家马元驭(1669-1722)。她自幼便与父兄研习画理,后又曾与丈夫同游京师以鬻画自给。从这次展出的《花鸟图轴》中,可以看出其绘画技艺毫不逊色于同时期的男性画家,她毫无疑问是这一时期中国女画家的杰出代表。
Ma Quan, with birth and death years unknown, coming from Changshu (Jiangsu), was active in the early 18th century as the only female painter among the 12 painters. Her father was the famous painter Ma Yuanyu (1669-1722). She studied painting with her father and brother from childhood. Later, she visited the capital with her husband where she sold paintings for a living. From the Flower and Bird Scroll, which will be exhibited this time, we can see that her painting skills equaled the male painters of the same period. She was undoubtedly an outstanding representative of the Chinese female painters.
由于篇幅所限,想要全面地介绍17世纪晚期至19世纪早期中国画家群体断无可能,希望读者可以透过上文简要介绍的这12位画家及其画作,对这一时期中国画家及中国绘画艺术有一个初步的印象与认知。
Because of the limited space, it is impossible to introduce all the Chinese painting groups and styles from that period. We hope that the 12 Chinese painters and their paintings mentioned above can provide the readers with a general impression and idea about the Chinese painters and the art of Chinese painting of that period
.
(广州翻译公司贯日翻译www.en-ch.com 02086266990
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