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[航空] FAA执法手册(美国联邦航空管理局执法手册)英中对照系列5

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发表于 2019-4-12 10:04:09 |显示全部楼层
危险品处罚原则
Sanction Guidance Hazardous Materials Enforcement
1.背景
1. Background.
a.立法。国会认为在各种运输形式中,违规运输危险品对公共安全构成了威胁。1974年,国会通过实施《危险品运输法》(HMTA)这种威胁作出了反应。1990年,国会决定HMTA 中需要采取更严厉的措施,于是通过了《1990年危险品运输统一安全法》(见Public Law No.101-615, 1990 U.S. Code Congress. & Admin. News 104 Stat. 4605),该法对HMTA修订的主要作用是把对违反依据HMTA制定的规章的违法行为的最高处罚额度提高到25,000美元,同时第一次规定对任何一次违章行为的处罚最低处罚额为250美元。1994年,HMTA编入了《美国法典》,现在被称为《联邦危险品运输法》(见1994 U.S. Code Congress. & Admin.News 108 Stat. 759),在《美国法典》中编辑在49 U.S.C. 5101-5127条。在1994年法典重新编纂中,国会特别指出重新编纂法典并没有对以前的立法产生实质性的变化。2005年,国会通过、总统签署了《安全、可靠、灵活、高效的运输公平法:对使用者的馈赠》(简称为SAFETEA – LU),(见公法号109-59, 20058月10日)。这部法律与其他规定一起对行政处罚区间进行了修改,对违反了危险品运输法律和规章的违法行为,行政处罚的金额要根据这些法律规定来作出裁量。        (广州翻译公司贯日翻译www.en-ch.com 02086266990
a. Legislation. Congress determined that the unregulated transportation of hazardous materials constitutes a threat to public safety in all forms of transportation. Congress addressed that threat in 1974 by enacting the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA). By 1990, Congress determined that effective enforcement of the HMTA required more severe action, and enacted the Hazardous Materials Transportation Uniform Safety Act of 1990, Public Law No.101-615, 1990 U.S. Code Congress. & Admin. News 104 Stat. 4605. The primary effect of this 1990 revision of the HMTA was to raise the maximum civil penalty for violation of any regulation enacted under the HMTA to $25,000, and, for the first time, to require a $250 minimum penalty for any such violation. The HMTA was recodified in 1994 and is now referred to as the “Federal hazardous material transportation law,” 1994 U.S. Code Congress. & Admin. News 108 Stat. 759, codified at 49 U.S.C. §§ 5101-5127. In the 1994 recodification, Congress specifically stated that the recodification created no substantive change to the earlier form of the statute. In 2005, the Congress enacted and the President signed the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA – LU), Public Law 109-59, August 10, 2005. That legislation, among other things, modified the limitations on civil penalties that may be assessed for violations of the hazardous materials statute and regulations.
b.行政处罚。1990年的《联邦行政处罚通货膨胀率调整法》(见28 USC§2461),1996年的追债改进法案对其进行了修正(见公法104-134,1996年4月26日),提供了一个机制,根据通胀对金钱给付的行政处罚进行调整,以维持行政处罚的遏制作用,并促进遵守法律。依据该法,只有在依据规章实施行政处罚时,根据通胀调整后的行政罚款的最大值才可以适用。调整后的行政处罚数额列在14.CFR.13部的H分部中。依据SAFETEA – LU法,对违反危险品运输法律或规章的违法行为的裁量,最高处罚金额可达50,000美元,最低处罚金额为250美元。对上述处罚限制有两个例外,如果违法行为造成了人员的死亡、重大疾病或重伤,或者造成了重大财产损失,最高处罚可达100,000美元。对训练中的违章行为最低处罚额为450美元。
b. Civil Penalties. The Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, 28 U.S.C. § 2461 (note), as amended by the Debt Collection Improvement Act of 1996, Public Law 104-134, April 26, 1996, provides a mechanism for adjustments for monetary civil penalties for inflation in order to maintain the deterrent effect of monetary civil penalties and promote compliance with the law. Under the statute, the adjusted civil penalty maximums cannot be applied unless they are implemented by regulation. The adjusted civil penalties are listed in part 13 of Title 14 of the CFR, subpart H. Pursuant to SAFETEA – LU, the maximum civil penalty that may be assessed for a violation of the Federal hazardous material law or a hazardous material regulation is now $50,000; the minimum civil penalty is now $250. There are two exceptions to those limits. A maximum civil penalty of $100,000 may be assessed if the violation results in death, serious illness, or severe injury to any person, or substantial destruction of property. The minimum civil penalty that may be assessed for a training violation is $450.




(广州翻译公司贯日翻译www.en-ch.com 02086266990



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